Ken Williams (USGS) introduced the session on system change and adaptive management with a brief talk on non-stationarity and climate change. He introduced three decision making situations:
Situation 1: stationary system dynamics with epistemic certainty (classic OR)
Situation 2: stationary system dynamics with epistemic uncertainty (AM optimization focuses here)
Situation 3: non-stationary system dynamics with unpredictable process change
This third situation is the new one introduced by climate change.
"Scenarios is a spoon type concept ... it is time to be sharp-edged not spoon-like"